Photo Series: Spring in Iran – Kaleybar, East Azerbaijan Province

Kaleybar is a city of 9.030 inhabitants (2006) in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. This county produces beautiful pomegranates, excellent figs and grapes that are dried on fires (because the sun is always obscured by thick clouds). In recent year the city has become a tourist destination thanks to its proximity to Babak Castle.

Kaleybar was the stronghold of Babak Khorramdin who in 816 AD revolted against the Arabs. Babak’s resistance was ended in 836 when he was defeated by the Iranian General Afshin. The events of the two decades long tumultuous times subjected the town to the reports of early Islamic historians.

The spoken language in Kaleybar is the Azeri dialect of Turkish. The name Kaleybar could have Tati origins, meaning a town built on rocks. The Kaleybar region with mountainous terrain, shepherding and cultivation of hillside possess the isolating features for the development of a sophisticated whistled language. The majority of males are able, and perhaps addicted, to masterfully mimic the melodic sounds of musical instruments using fingerless whistle. Melodic whistling, indeed, appears to be a private version of the Ashug music for personal satisfaction.

Ashugh music
The mountainous region of Qaradagh, due to its remoteness and inaccessibility, was a guardian of Ashugh music. This frequent allusions of this music to mountains, with the intention of arousing an emotional state with a tone of mild melancholy, is consistent with the geography of Kaleybar.

Aşıq Hoseyn Javan, born in Oti Kandi near Kaleybar, is a legendary Ashik. Hoseyn Javan’s music emphasizes on realism and beauties of real life in line with the mainstream world view of Arasbaran culture.

The locals cherish the landscape of their town mingled with the vivid yellow blossoming zoghal (cornelian cherry) trees in early spring. The berries will be sun-dried on flat roof tops and sold to the market as an ingredient of ash reshteh. Unfortunately, the local version of this thick soup is not offered in restaurants. In recent years, the regional government has organized zoghal festivals as a means of promoting tourism.

The relatively well preserved Babak Castle at an altitude of 2300m is located some 3km away from Kaleybar. This Sassanid era fortress is named after the ninth century Iranian resistance leader, Babak Khorramdin, who resisted Arab armies until year 839.

The mountain ranges south-west of Kaleybar are still used as summer camp of pastoralists belonging to Arasbaran Tribes. This provides an opportunity for observing the relaxed idyllic life style of bygone times. They generally welcome visitors as long as their cultures and mode of life is not ridiculed. The visit should be on sunny days when the shepherd dogs feel lethargic.

Further links:

  1. The other Iran | Castles in Iran since pre-Islamic times
  2. The other Iran | Photo Series: Spring in Iran – Arasbaran, East Azerbaijan Province

Sources: Mehr News Agency | Photos, Wikipedia | Kaleybar

Iran’s Tehran Province: Chitgar Lake (photo gallery)

Chitgar Lake is an (artificial) recreational lake located in the north of Chitgar Park, north-west of Tehran City, Iran. Also known as the Lake of the Martyrs of the Persian Gulf, this complex has a total area of about 250 hectares; 130 hectares across the lake and 120 hectares on its coastal zone and resorts.

About 80% of the lake water comes from the Kan Creek. The remaining 20% comes from central areas and surface runoffs of the district.

Back in 1968 it was planned to construct a lake in western Tehran but due to technical and budgetary constraints the construction of the lake remained dormant for many years. From 2003 to 2010 were the uncertainties of the plan reviewed and operations of the lake area started in September 2010. The operations of the coastal zones started in June of 2012.

Interesting locations near Chitgar Lake
Chitgar Forest Park , Letmal-e Kan Forest Park, Eram Park, Chahar Bagh, the Azadi Sport Complex, Chitgar Equestrian Complex, Alborz waterfall (Abshar-e Alborz) and Kan Creek

Sources: Wikipedia | Chitgar Lake, Tehran Picture Agency | Chitgar Lake (photos by E. Rafati), | Tehran | Persian Gulf Martyrs Lake (Chitgar), ISNA | Photos 1 (by B. Ghasemi), ISNA | Photos 2 (by B. Ghasemi), Farhang News | Persian Gulf Martyrs Lake

Photo gallery: Alvares Ski Resort in Iran’s Ardebil Province

Iran Sareyn Sarein MapAlvares is a ski resort in Iran’s northern province of Ardabil. It is the second standard ski resort in Iran and is situated in the village of Alvares which is located 24 kilometers away from the city of Sareyn.

Sources: TASNIM | Photos, wikipedia | Sareyn

Photo Series: Spring in Iran – Arasbaran, East Azerbaijan Province

Arasbaran, formerly known as Qaradagh or Qaraja dagh, is a large mountainous area stretching from the Qusha Dagh massif, south of Ahar, to the Aras River in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran. The region is confined to Aras River in the north, Meshgin Shahr County and Moghan in the east, Sarab County in the south, and Tabriz and Marand counties in the west.

Since 1976, UNESCO has registered 72,460 hectares of this region as biosphere reserve. Arasbaran is home to 215 species of birds, 29 species of reptiles, 48 species of mammals and 17 species of fish. The local flora include hornbeam, sumac and berberis. The large walnut and cornelian cherry (zoghal) trees, wildly grown alongside water-streams, provide an important income source for inhabitants but there are also more exotic plant species, such as redcurrant, truffle and herbs with application in traditional medicine.

There were several Turkic tribes in this area and characteristic aspects of their culture, developed around Nomadic pastoralism, have persisted to our times. Nomadic population at present has been estimated to be about 36000.

The spoken languages are Azerbaijani or Oghuz, a branch of the Turkic language family but most inhabitants are familiar with Persian language.

Arasbaran carpets are in between Persian carpets and Azerbaijani rugs. Still, there is also an indigenous style known as Balan Rug. The peak of carpet weaving art in Arasbaran is manifested in Verni (Azerbaijani rug), a carpet-like kilim with a delicate and fine warp and woof, which is woven without a previous sketch.

Verni weavers employ the image of birds and animals in simple geometrical shapes, imitating the earthenware patterns that were popular in prehistoric times. A key décor feature is the S-element that means “dragon” among the nomads. At present, Verni is woven by the girls of Arasbaran Tribes, often in the same room where the nomadic tribes reside and is a significant income source for about 20000 families.

Many elements of the indigenous culture, particularly local music, have survived to the present day. More recently a slow but persistent cultural revival has been in progress. The Ashughi music is central to this shared identity.

A recent study has indicated that Mikandi valley, Aynali forests and Babak Castle have the highest potential for ecotourism. Another potential touristic attraction could be the summer camps of semi-settled tribes of Arasbaran, known as Ilat, who spend 5 months of year in uplands for grazing their livestock. There are also cornelian cherry (zoghal) festivals in Kaleybar and a yearly pomegranate festival in Mardanaqom village with Ashugh music performances.

See also: List of biosphere reserves in Iran

Sources: Wikipedia | Arasbaran, Mehr News Agency | Photos, IRNA | Photos, ISNA | Photos

Photo Series: Spring in Iran – Bojnourd, North Khorasan Province

Iran, Bojnord MapBojnord (Bojnourd) is the capital of the northeastern Iranian province of North Khorasan on the border with Turkmenistan. Located 1070m above sea level, north of the Alborz mountain range and south of the Koppeh Dagh (Kopetdag) mountains, it is about 750km away from Tehran.

The city is quite famous for its multicultural background. Many people speak at least 2 different languages including Persian, Tati, Khorasani Turkic, Kurmanci Kurdish, and Turkmen. Intermarriage between said ethnic groups is common.

The city contains many historical and natural attractions, such as mineral water springs, small lakes, recreational areas, caves and protected regions, and various hiking areas. Most of the historical relics are from the Qajar era, as earthquakes continue to ravage older relics.

Some of the popular attractions of Bojnurd are:
Besh Qardash (five brothers) mineral spring
Baba Aman Spring and Jungle Park
Mufakham mirror house, built during the Qajar era
– Mufakham Historical Hospital, built during the Qajar era
– Mausoleum of Sultan Seyed Abbas (brother of Imam Reza)
– Bazkhaneh valley
– Ayyub mineral spring
– Ruwin village

Sources: Wikipedia | Bojnord, Mehr News Agency | Photos,

Iran’s North Khorasan Province: Bojnourd – Besh Qardash (Five Brothers) mineral spring

Besh Qardash (or Besh Ghardash) (Persian: بش قارداش) is a monument and mineral spring in Bojnord, northeastern Iran. The place is an entertainment and historical tourism attraction and labeled as a national heritage by Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization.

The Besh Qardash is 7km away from the city of Bojnord. The place is close to the villages of Qeri Janlu, Mehnan and Asadli.

The term “Besh Qardash” means “Five Brothers” in the regional Khorasani Turkic language. It refers to the mythic history of the place. According to the myth, there had been five brothers fighting against then-brutal-government and when they harbored to a hillside, they disappeared and five water springs started welling.

During the Qajar era, Naser al-Din Shah passed the place in his state visit and ordered Yar Mohammad Khan Shadlou (also known as Sardar Mufakham) to construct a monument right next to the springs. A crown shaped swimming pool was built afterwards.

Other articles about North Khorasan Province: The other Iran | North Khorasan

Sources: Wikipedia | Besh Qardash, Tishineh | Besh Qardash Park

Iran’s North Khorasan Province: Bojnourd – Mofakham Mirror House and Building

The Mofakham Mirror House (Persian: Ayeneh Khaneh Mofakham) in Bojnourd, the capital of North Khorasan Province on the border with Turkmenistan, served as official residence. In 1975 the Mirror House was included in the list of National Monuments of Iran.

The building, completed mid-1870s, is an oblong-shaped two-story construction consisting of nine chambers. Famous for its mirrorwork used for interior decoration as well as its rich tile design, belonged to Sardar Mofakham, a senior official of the late Qajar period.

“The House of Mirrors Mofakham” is one of the architectural jewels of the Nasser-e-Din Shah Qajar era. In the past it was located in the middle of a large orchard at a close distance to other buildings as the Hozkhaneh, “The Garden of fountains”, and the Kolah Farangi Building. Together they constituted the “Dar-ol-Hokumeh” (House of power).

The Kolah Farangi Building collapsed following the earthquake that shook the city of Bojnourd but Mafkham Mirror House and Building remained to this day.

The Mafkham Building was constructed as Sardar’s Mofakham residence. It maintains thirty-four chambers and two large halls. The façade is covered with tile works, depicting humans, animals, and geometrical shapes. The building is fully covered with tiles in different shapes and forms in blue, yellow, pink, purple, white, red, and black colors, while each pillar has been decorated with particular patterns and designs.

The building now houses the Museum of Ethnography Bojnord (Mofakham Museum). The video below is a visit of Press.TV to the Mofakham Museum:

Sources: Tishineh, Iran Daily, Wikimedia Commons | Bojnord, Wikipedia | Spiegelhaus Mofakham, La Revue de Téhéran | N°12/2006,